History: The 10th Mountain Division Turned The tide Of The European War
In the winter of 1941 the Italians lost 25,000 soldiers in the mountains of Albania because of lack of winter warfare training, physical fitness and lack of proper equipment.
Minot (Minnie) Dole, who had invented the National Ski Patrol Service, offered up the NSPS to the War Department in order to train and outfit a division of soldiers that could live, fight and survive in subzero temperatures, high mountains and deep snow.
Names that have become synonymous with the development of skiing in America quickly enlisted and reported to the Paradise Lodge on Mount Rainier located in the Pacific Northwest. Their job was to test and improve all kinds of winter survival and fighting equipment.
To test some of it they got to ski cross country all the way around the base of Mount Rainer with 90-pound rucksacks. For some reason they decided that all of their skis should be long and their boots should be loose and soft. They also tested many different types of fabric for livable tents in below-zero temperatures.
Names of some of the first people who enlisted later became the “who’s who” of ski development in America in the 1950s and ‘60s. Friedle Pfeiffer helped develop Aspen, Pete Siebert is credited with the creation of Vail. Bob Parker was the editor of Skiing News Magazine and later went on to become the public relations and marketing director of Vail. Steve Knowlton would develop a ski resort at the Broadmoor in Colorado Springs. Johnny Litchfield was the assistant director of the Sun Valley Ski School when I taught there during the winter of 1948-49.
John Jay perfected his motion picture techniques on Mount Rainier filming the then fledgling 10th Mountain Division soldiers. John spent the next 50 years or so producing an annual feature-length ski film and then traveling the world and showing it.
In the spring of 1945 while suffering tremendous casualties, the 10th Mountain Division turned the tide of the European war in favor of the Allies by capturing the German strongholds in the Apennine Mountains. They split the German army in half and hastened the end of World War II in Europe by many months.
I have often been asked if I was a member of the 1oth Mountain Division and I have to say no. I joined the Navy because I wasn’t thrilled with sleeping in muddy foxholes, plus I understood the water, so all I did was float around on a small ship in the Pacific until it was sunk in a horrific typhoon in 1945. Thankfully, there were no casualties.